Coconut, aka Kalpavriksha (known as the tree of heaven) was originated in Southeastern parts of Asia. It is a
large 80-100 feet palm plant with various uses, from food to cosmetics to utility sectors. Therefore, coconut
farming is gaining popularity in India.
India is one of the biggest producers of coconut in the world. In addition to this, coconut farming in India
accounted for the world’s 34% production during 2021-22. Also, this refreshing fruit contributes Rs. 307,498 to
This fibre-rich fruit aids 15,000 coir-based industries. And provides food security and a better livelihood to
12 million people in India.
Coconut cultivation is the next best thing to take part in. So, if you are thinking of pursuing coconut
production, let’s help you with:
Why is coconut farming important?
Easy planting, growing, and harvesting tips for coconut
Coconut farming profits – know how much is profit in coconut farming
Top 10 leading states for production of coconut during FY 2021-22
Government initiatives for coconut production in India
Coconut Farming – Planting, Growing & Harvesting Tips
For pursuing coconut farming, following are a few coconut cultivation practices that you must follow.
1. Soil Requirements for Coconut Farming
Soil types like alluvial, laterite, red sandy loam, reclaimed, and coastal sandy soil with Ph ranging from
5.2 to 8.0 are ideal for growing coconuts. In addition to this, the soil depth should be 1.2 m deep and have
good water retention capacity. And there shouldn’t be any rock or hard substance 2m deep in the soil.
In laterite soil, dig a pit of 1.2m*1.2m*1.2m and fill it with cow dung, ash, and loose soil up to 60
cm before planting.
In loamy soils, keep pit size as 1m*1m*1m, and topsoil content as 50cm deep.
Fill the pit with two layers of coconut husks in an upward direction to retain moisture.
After each husk layer, sprinkle BHC 10% DP to prevent termites in the field.
2. Preparation of Land for Coconut Planting
To prepare the land for palm cultivation, factors like —- land topography, soil type, and other environmental
factors are important. In addition, the land should be cleaned of weeds and rocks and marking of planting
If the land is sloppy, it’s vital to adopt soil conservation methods.
Planting should be done in mounds if the groundwater level is high.
In sloppy or uneven terrains, contour terracing or bunding should be practised.
In rice fields or low-lying areas, bunds should be created up to a height of 1m above water level.
3. Climatic Conditions for Coconut Plantation
Coconut palms can grow under various climatic conditions. Being a tropical plant, it can grow between 20°N
to 20°S. And rainfall of about 2000mm/year evenly distributed throughout the year is suitable for maximum
growth and production of nuts.
4. Fertilisers and Manure for Coconut Trees
It is important to start manuring from the beginning, right after coconut trees are planted. Also, it is
recommended to apply 20-50 kg of manure per palm/year when the Southwest monsoon is around, as this is when
the soil remains moist.
Farmers can apply different types of organic manure such as–
Neem or Groundnut cake
For fertilisers, the following schedule can be followed:5. Planting Time for Coconuts
The ideal time to plant coconut trees is after the rainy season. Coconut trees become fruit-bearing after 4
years of planting. So, It takes about 15 months for its fruits to ripen. Generally, when the fruit is green,
it’s ready to be plucked.
Soil should be stirred and de-weed frequently. For intercropping, clean the interspace for sowing other
seasonal or perennial crops. Keep other crops at a distance from coconut crops.
6. Irrigation for Coconuts
The drip irrigation for coconut farming is highly suitable as coconut seedlings are initially sensitive.
Moreover, the drip method ensures light moisture to the coconut roots and prevents them from dying.
During the summertime, coconut plants require watering at intervals of three days. Whereas, during winter
months, irrigation once a week is enough.
40 litres of water/palm every week can increase the yield of nuts by 50%. Therefore, the drip irrigation
method is highly effective in areas where water supply is abundant.
Coconuts can become mature in about 12 months. Moreover, the harvesting time of coconuts can vary according
to different areas. Ripen coconuts are a major source of coconut products. However, eleven-month-old nuts
can be used for fibre or harvested to manufacture coir fibre. Almost 2-6 harvesting can be done yearly,
resulting in an average of 80-100 nuts per tree annually.
A single coconut plant can sustain for 65 years, but its fruit-bearing capacity becomes slow with age.
8. Marketing and Distribution of Coconut
Farmers can easily distribute coconuts to wholesalers and retailers as coconuts are in high demand. The
multipurpose use of coconuts in the Indian context makes them high in demand. In India, coconuts are part
of religion, cuisine, handicraft, utensils, and whatnot.
Given the high consumption of coconuts, the bonus is you won’t have to market it by stating its benefits or
use cases. Moreover, the giant nuts in themselves are self-marketable.
Read more at: cpcri.icar.gov.in/filemgr/webfs/publication/Coconut_English_No133.pdf